Apicoectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing the tip or apex of the root – the part that is farthest from the dental crown – along with the inflamed tissue around it. This leaves a small hole that the organism eventually fills with a scar or healthy bone. An apicoectomy is performed if the root canal treatment has been unsuccessful. In this procedure, the gum or oral mucosa is cut open, the bone over the affected area is removed with a drill and the inflamed area along with the root tip is removed. Performed under local anaesthesia, the procedure is completely painless.